Comparison of adjectives in English

Adjectives with one syllable

If the adjective end with “-ow“, add “-er”/”-est”:
– slow – slower, the slowest
– new – newer, the newest
– low – lower, the lowest

If the adjective end with “-e“, add “-r”:
– wide – wider, the widest
– cute – cuter, the cutest
– nice – nicer, the nicest
– large – larger, the largest

If the adjective end with “consonant+y“, change “-y” to “i” and add “-er”/”-est”:
– dry – drier, the driest
– sly – slier, the sliest

If the adjective has a CVC pattern, double the consonant and add “-er”/”-est”:
– wet – wetter, the wettest
– big – bigger, the biggest
– sad – sadder, the saddest

Adjectives with two syllables and the following endings:

If the adjective end with “consonant+y“, change “-y” to “i” and add “-er”/”-est”:
– dirty – dirtier, the dirtiest
– easy – easier, the easiest
– happy – happier, the happiest

If the adjective end with “-er“, add “-er”/”-est”:
– clever – cleverer, the cleverest

If the adjective end with “-le“, add “-er”/”-est”:
– simple – simpler, the simplest

If the adjective end with “-ow“, add “-er”/”-est”:
– narrow – narrower, the narrowest

All other adjectives with more than one syllable more or most in front of it, except these irregular adjectives:
– bad – worse, the worst
– far(distance) – farther, the farthest
– far(extent) – further, the furthest
– good – better, the best
– little – less, the least
– many – more, the most
– much – more, the most

Special adjectives can be compared with “-er“, “-est” or more, most:
– clever – cleverer / more clever, the cleverest / most clever
– common – commoner / more common, the commonest / most common
– likely – likelier / more likely, the likeliest / most likely
– pleasant – pleasanter / more pleasant, the pleasantest / most pleasant
– polite – politer / more polite, the politest / most polite
– quiet – quieter / more quiet, the quietest / most quiet
– stupid – stupider / more stupid, the stupidest / most stupid
– sure – surer / more sure, the surest / most sure
– subtle – subter / more subtle, the subtlest / most subtle
– simple – simpler / more simple, the simplest / most simple

Past Simple vs. Present Perfect

Past Simple is used:
– for actions which happened at a stated time in the pastHe sold his car two weeks ago. (When? Two weeks ago.)
– to express a past state or habitWhen he was young, he lived in a small flat.
– for past actions which happened one after the otherShe put on her coat, took her bag and left the house.
– for an action which happened in the past and cannot be repeatedI once spoke to Stalin. (I won’t see her again; he’s dead.)

Time adverbs and expressions used with the Past Simple:
– yesterday, last week / month / year / Monday, etc.,
– ago, how long ago, just now, then, when, in 2000, etc.

Present Perfect is used:
– for actions which happened at an unstated time in the pastHe has sold his car. (When? We don’t know.)
– to express actions which have finished so recently that there’s evidence in the present – He has just painted the room. (The paint is wet.)
– to talk about experiencesHe has tried skydiving.
– for actions which started in the past and continue up to the presentShe has lived in this house for two years. (She still lives in this house.) BUT He lived in China for one year. (He doesn’t live in China now.)
– for an action which happened in the past and may be repeated – I’ve met Madonna. (I may meet her again; she’s still alive.)

Time adverbs and expressions used with the Present Perfect:
– just, ever, never, always, already, yet, for, since, so far, how long, lately, recently
– today, this week / month / year, once, several times, etc.

have gone to / have been to / have been in:

He has gone to Saint-Petersburg. (He hasn’t come back yet. He is still in Saint-Petersburg.)
– He has been to Hong Kong once. (He’s visited Hong Kong. He’s back now.) (Present Perfect of the verb ‘to go’)
– I have been in Russia for a month. (I am in Russia.) (Present Perfect of the verb ‘to be’)

Prepositions of time

There are three hrepositions of time: “at”, “on” and “in”.
at – is used describe specific time periods – hours/holidays:
– at 9:00 PM
– at lunch
– at dinner
– at sunrise
– at Chirstmas/Easter
– at the moment: at the same time, at the end of the week
Exceptions: at night

on – is used describe longer time periods – days/portions of days/dates
– on Saturday
– on Tuesdays
– on June 8th
– on my birthday, on Christmas Day, on Independence Day, on New Year’s Eve
– on the weekend (United States)
Exceptions: on my lunch break, on time

in – is used describe period ot time that longer than days – weeks/months/years/etc:
– in the 20th century
– in the 1980’s
– in December, in June
– in the third week of April
– in the past/future
– in winter, in summer
Exceptions: in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening

No prepositions:
– next week, year, month etc
– last night, year etc
– this morning, month etc
– every day, today, tomorrow, yesterday

Pronouns

 

Personal pronouns:

  • subjective form:
    singular plural
    1st person I we
    2nd person you you
    3rd person he, she, it they
  • objective form:
    singular plural
    1st person me us
    2nd person you you
    3rd person him, her, it them
  • possessive form:
    before a noun independent
    singular plural singular plural
    1st person my our mine ours
    2nd person your your yours yours
    3rd person his, her, its their his, hers, its theirs
  • reflexive form:
    singular plural
    1st person myself ourselves
    2nd person yourself yourselves
    3rd person himself, herself, itself themselves

Reciprocal pronouns: each other, one another
Relative pronouns: that, which, whatever, whichever, whoever, who, whom, whose
Demonstrative pronouns: this, that, these, those
Interrogative pronouns: who? (subjective form), whom? (objective form), whose? (possessive form), what?, which?
Indefinite pronouns: one, anyone, everyone, no-one, someone, anybody, everybody, nobody, somebody, anything, everything, nothing, something

Verb + ing

The general rule when changing a verb into its -ing form is just to add -ing to the end of the verb:
– to feel – feeling
– to go – going
– to work – working
– to sleep – sleeping

If the verb ends in an -e we remove the -e and add -ing:
– to live – living
– to have – having
– to make – making
– to take – taking

If the verb ends in an -ee, -oe or -ye we do not remove the -e and add -ing:
to free – freeing
to dye – dyeing
to tiptoe – tiptoeing

If the verb ends in -ie we change it to ying:
– to lie – lying
– to die – dying
– to tie – tying

If the one-syllable verb ends in a consonant + vowel + consonant, we double the final consonant and add -ing:
– to stop – stopping
– to sit – sitting
– to plan – planning
– to get – getting
– to swim – swimming

But, we do not double the final consonant when the verb ends in W, X or Y or when the final syllable is not emphasized:
– to fix – fixing
– to enjoy – enjoying
– to snow – snowing

If a two-syllable verb ends in a consonant + vowel + consonant, we do not double the final consonant when the stress is on the first syllable:
– to happen – happening
– to enter – entering
– to offer – offering
– to suffer – suffering

If the verb ends in a stressed vowel and -r, we double the final -r and add -ing
– refer – referring
– defer – deferring

If the verb ends in an unstressed vowel and -r, we do not double the final -r and add -ing:
– to offer – offering
– to suffer – suffering
– to whisper – whispering

Plurals

In order to change a singular noun to its plural form in English, you need to apply appropriate rule.

Nouns that end in -s,-ss,-sh,-ch,-x,-o, will require an addition of “es” for the plural:
– bus – buses
– kiss – kisses
– bush – bushes
– witch – witches
– box – boxes

About nouns that ends in -o. Basically, you need to remember these nouns:
– tomatoes
– potatoes
– heroes
– echoes
Most of the other nouns with -o in the end will require only -s for plural:
– photos
– radios
– pianos

Nouns that end in -f,-fe, will require to drop the “f/fe” an addition of “ves” for the plural:
– leaf – leaves
– knife – knives
– wife – wives

Nouns that end in a consonant + y, will require to drop the “y” and an addition of “ies“:
– baby – babies

Nouns that end in a vowel(a,e,i,o,u) + y, will require an addition of “s“:
– boy – boys
– way – ways

Most of other nouns will require an addition of “s”:
– ball – balls
– cow – cows
– store – stores
– phone – phones

These rules can be applied only to regular plurals.

The other kind of plurals are irregular plurals. For example:
– fish – fish
– sheep – sheep
– foot – feet
– tooth – teeth
– goose – geese
– tooth – teeth
– goose – geese
– child – children
– man – men
– woman – women
– person – people
– mouse – mice